Automated Gleason Grading of Prostate Biopsies using Deep Learning

W. Bulten, H. Pinckaers, H. van Boven, R. Vink, T. de Bel, B. van Ginneken, J. van der Laak, C. Hulsbergen-van de Kaa and G. Litjens

arXiv:1907.07980 2019


The Gleason score is the most important prognostic marker for prostate cancer patients but suffers from significant inter-observer variability. We developed a fully automated deep learning system to grade prostate biopsies. The system was developed using 5834 biopsies from 1243 patients. A semi-automatic labeling technique was used to circumvent the need for full manual annotation by pathologists. The developed system achieved a high agreement with the reference standard. In a separate observer experiment, the deep learning system outperformed 10 out of 15 pathologists. The system has the potential to improve prostate cancer prognostics by acting as a first or second reader.

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